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The Jarchas appeared at the end of longer poetry written in Arabic or Hebrew known as muwashshah , which were lengthy glosses on the ideas expressed in the jarchas. Typically spoken in the voice of a woman, the jarchas express the anxieties of love, particularly of its loss. This combination of Hispano-Romance expression with Arabic script, only discovered in , locates the rise of a Spanish literary tradition in the cultural heterogeneity that characterized Medieval Spanish society and politics.

However, the Mozarabic language of the Jarchas appears to be a separate Romance language whose evolution from Vulgar Latin paralleled that of Castilian Spanish rather than deriving from or fusing into the latter. What the discovery of the jarchas makes clear instead is that from its origins, the literature of Spain has arisen out of and born witness to a rich, heterogeneous mix of cultures and languages.

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The epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. The poet, name unknown, wrote the epic in about and Cid supposedly died forty years before in This epic represents realism, because nothing was exaggerated and the details are very real, even the geography correctly portrays the areas in which Cid traveled and lived. Unlike other European epics, the poem is not idealized and there is no presence of supernatural beings.

It has assonance instead of rhyme and its lines vary in length, the most common length being fourteen syllables. This type of verse is known as mester de juglaria verse form of the minstrels. The epic is divided into three parts, also known as cantos. These poems were sung to uneducated audiences, nobles and peasants alike. The poetry was formal, with an carefully counted syllables in each line.

Popular themes were Christian legends, lives of saints and tales from classical antiquity. The poems were cited to villagers in public plazas. Gonzalo de Berceo was one of the greatest advocates of this school, writing on religious subjects. Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century when King Alfonso X el Sabio of Castilla gave support and recognition to the writing form. He, with the help of his groups of intellectuals, directed the composition of many prose works including Las siete partidas, the first modern book of laws of the land written in the people's language.

For his direction of these works and many others he directed, Alfonso X is called the father of Spanish prose. His nephew, Don Juan Manuel is famous for his prose work El Conde Lucanor which is a frame story or short stories within an overall story. In this work, the Conde Lucanor seeks advice from his wise counselor, Patronio, who gives the advice through the telling of stories.

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Juan Manuel also wrote lesser-known works such as El libro de los estados on the social classes and El libro del caballero y escudero on philosophical discussions. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, writer Fernando del Pulgar ? This form is demonstrated by Pulgar's work Claros varones de Castilla in which he represents the detailed lives of twenty-four distinguished contemporaries. He explores their moral and psychological natures as well as physical traits.

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Pulgar was the official historian of the monarchs Fernando and Isabel, the famous Catholic Monarchs of Spain. This position gave him close encounters with the characters in this book, making the work realistic and detailed. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages can be divided into three groups: the jarchas, the popular poems originating from folk-songs sung by commoners, and the courtly poetry of the nobles. Another poet, Juan Ruiz, or the Arcipreste de Hita is an outstanding lyricist of the fourteenth century.

His only work, Libro de buen amor is a framework tale in which he includes translations from Ovid, satires, little poems called serranillas , twenty-nine fables, a sermon on Christian armor, and many lyric poems that praise the Virgin Mary. He shows a knowledge of Latin authors and familiarity with the works of Dante and Petrarch.

Mendoza was also the first to introduce the sonnet into Spanish literature. The last great poet of the Middle Ages is Jorge Manrique. He is famous for his work which laments the death of his father, Coplas a la muerte de su padre. In this piece, Manrique shows classical feelings by expressing himself in a universal manner all things come to an end.

He is still considered a poet of the Middle Ages in that he finds peace and finality in religion. During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurs. Literary production increases very greatly. The principal features of the Renaissance were the revival of learning based on classical sources, the rise of courtly patronage, the development of perspective in painting, and the advances in science.

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Garcilaso de la Vega. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music. Juan Ruiz de Alarcon. Enlightenment thinkers sought to apply systematic thinking to all forms of human activity, carrying it to the ethical and governmental spheres in exploration of the individual, society and the state. In part a revolt against aristocratic, social, and political norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction against the rationalization of nature, in art and literature Romanticism stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the awe experienced in confronting the sublimity of nature.

It elevated folk art, nature and custom. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism," Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. Modernism was rooted in the idea that "traditional" forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, and daily life had become outdated; therefore it was essential to sweep them aside. The intellectual movement that thinks objectively and scientifically about the causes of the decadence of Spain as a nation between the 19th and the 20th century is called Regenerationism.

It expresses a pessimist judgement about Spain. The regenerationist intellectuals divulgated their studies in journals with a big diffusion, so the movement expanded. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by U.

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The "Disaster" of led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of "Regeneracionismo". Nevertheless, it stuck as a way to describe a group of writers who turned in content from the more general exploration of universal middle class values characteristic of Nineteenth Century Realism to an obsession with questions of a more national nature. Their articles, essays, poems, and novels exploring Spanish history and geography carried existential overtones, expressing overall a sense of deep malaise at the social injustice, political bungling, and cultural indifference evident in contemporary Spanish society.

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In this inaugural talk, the new Laureate announced on May 17th offers a fascinating insight into their remarkable body of work and discusses the key themes of their laureateship. What role can photography still play in reporting the state of a nation? Seamus Murphy grew up in Ireland, but has spent most of his life in exile, living in London and documenting war zones across the world, from Afghanistan to Kosovo, in collaboration with singer-songwriter P J Harvey. His new book, The Republic, is a journey home to mark the centenary.

What country did he find? Join them for this illustrated talk in which they discuss their work. She worked in theatre from the age of fifteen, first as an actress and then as an accomplished playwright, but it is perhaps as an activist that she is best known. He is author of a novel asking one of the main questions for Russians even today, "Who is guilty? Nikolai Chernyshevsky is a 19th-century Russian revolutionary democrat and philosopher who set out a utopian vision of a socialist society that was "beyond" capitalism.

This is the story of Vera Pavlovna, a young woman struggling to escape a passionless life that her scheming and greedy mother tries to impose by marrying her off to their landlord. Seeking independence, she enters into a marriage of her own arrangement with a revolutionary-minded medical student, Lopukhov, and starts a successful business as a seamstress.

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In , Alexievich was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Today her books are translated into dozens of languages. Alexievich makes her living as an investigative journalist rather than a writer. Her literature is diverse, and is not always elegant. Alexievich has strong anti-Russian political views.

Prilepin is definitely the leading contemporary war writer. In real life, Prilepin was a member of the banned National Bolshevik Party in and later of a similar party called the Other Russia. He participated in demonstrations together with his former comrade, Eduard Limonov. Prilepin's works have received various awards. After publishing this book Prilepin announced taking a break in literature to become the leader of a battalion in the Donetsk People's Republic DPR fight for independence from Kiev.

As one of the s poets together with Voznesensky and Rozhdestvensky, he was very popular and packed stadiums where he read poems. Another writer who suffered from Soviet authorities, Shalamov survived in a scarier place than the War because these were not Nazis but Soviet citizens who killed Soviet citizens.

It depicts the unemotional brutality of power and the range of human suffering. Thematically, each story is self-contained, focusing on a different element of GULAG life, a specific event or a personality. However, this thematic division masks a deeper artistic unity.

Famous Russian poet Anna Akhmatova had a tragic life. Her husband, poet Nikolai Gumilev, was executed and their son Lev Gumilev was arrested. Nikolai was a Silver Age poet who created a new literary movement — acmeism - which depicted direct expression through clear images and which was in confrontation with abstract symbolism. Akhmatova, also an acmeist, dedicated numerous lyrical poems to him, as well as he to her. The marriage lasted eight stormy years before finally breaking down. After he was declared an enemy of the people and executed by Soviet authorities for opposition to the Bolsheviks, Akhmatova refused to denounce him and helped preserve his poetic legacy.

While one of the most famous successors to the Gogolian tradition in Soviet literature, Mikhail Zoshchenko is not well known to foreign readers. He wrote most of his best stories in the s showing how the ideals of the revolution were replaced by petit bourgeois values. Zoshchenko's stories are vignettes or anecdotes: short, in simple language, often paradoxical and always very funny.

Even so, Zoshchenko was somewhat a favorite of the Soviet elite who viewed his satire in ideological terms - as a denunciation of "Philistinism" and the "birthmarks of the old world. Stalin signaled a crackdown, and in Zoshchenko was labelled a vulgar and loathsome proponent of non-progressive and apolitical ideas. Along with poet Anna Akhmatova, Zoshchenko was expelled by special decree from the Union of Writers and deprived of his "worker's" ration card.

Publishers, journals and theaters began canceling their contracts and demanding that advances be returned.