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Beyond this capacity, the breed was more importantly recognized for its usefulness as a brood chicken — a broody hen used to hatch eggs. Nankins were often kept on game farms in England for this purpose and continue to provide this valuable service for small farms today. Nankins are known for the rich chestnut color of their bodies.

The hens are a light chestnut color with the end of the tail feathers being black. The males tend to be darker in color with black tail and black flight feathers. The breed can be found with rose combs or single combs, with both varieties having bright red wattles, faces, and earlobes. Legs should be slate blue, though white leg color will occur.

White leg color is considered a fault and occurs because of a hidden recessive gene in the males. Nankins have a calm disposition and a likeable personality; however, the cocks have been known to overcome their gentle nature and will run to the defense of a hen if she calls out in distress. That means the breed is naturally small and it has no large counterpart. Nankin chicken is one of the oldest bantam breed originating somewhere in Southeast Asia. It has been known in England since at least the s. The breed was named for the ancient inland seaport of Nanjing previously known as Nanking , which is located on the Yangtze River in east-central China.

Once Nankin chicken was a popular breed in England. And it began its decline in numbers during the mid s. The breed was widespread throughout Europe by the 18th century. Nankin chicken played an important role and used for developing numerous bantam breeds. It was used in the development of Sebright breed. In England, Nankin bantam hens were used to brood pheasant, quail and partridge eggs.

Now it is a very rare chicken breed.

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Nankin chicken is mainly known for its rich chestnut colored feathers. The males tend to be darker in color with black flight feathers and black tail. And the hens are a light chestnut color with the end of their tail feathers being black. There are two varieties of Nankin chicken which are differentiated by their comb type. All Nankins come in a single colour, with buff on the body and black tails; the golden hue is deeper and more lustrous in males, and they have the longer sickle feathers common in cocks.

Their beaks are a light horn colour, and legs are slate blue. Nankins are very friendly in disposition. Though they retain the ability to fly because of their small bodies and relatively large, downward-slanted wings, they tend to be less active and flighty than other bantams overall, they do well in confinement, and tend not to wander much when allowed to free range. Due to their small size and more prominent comb and wattles especially in the single comb variety , they are not cold hardy chickens, and require insulated shelter in northern regions.

The Nankin is usually reared for fancy and exhibition; the hens lay well, and are good sitters. Their eggs are very small and a creamy white colour; as with some other bantam breeds, broody Nankin hens were traditionally used to incubate the eggs of game birds such as pheasant , quail and partridge.

Quail Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds placed in the order Galliformes. Old World quail are placed in the family Phasianidae , New World quail are placed in the family Odontophoridae ; the species of buttonquail are named for their superficial resemblance to quail, form the family Turnicidae in the order Charadriiformes. The king quail, an Old World quail is sold in the pet trade, within this trade is though mistakenly, referred to as a "button quail".

Nankin Chicken Characteristics & Breed Information

Many of the common larger species are farm-raised for table food or egg consumption, are hunted on game farms or in the wild, where they may be released to supplement the wild population, or extend into areas outside their natural range. In , 40 million quail were produced in the U.

S; the collective noun for a group of quail is a flock, queer, or bevy. Quail eggs Domesticated quail "Quail". New International Encyclopedia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia , to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal , to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean , to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean ; the region is the only part of Asia that lies within the Southern Hemisphere , although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere.

Taiwan is included in this grouping by many anthropologists; the region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar , northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam , northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt , while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia , causing the region to have high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Southeast Asia covers about 4. Its total population is about 8. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after East Asia; the region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN , a regional organization established for economic, military and cultural integration amongst its members; the region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or the Indies until the 20th century.

In the 20th century, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina ; the maritime section of Southeast Asia is known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. However, by the late s, a standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged. Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries listed below.

Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea ; some southern parts of Mainland China , as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan, are considered as part of Southeast Asia by some authors. Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia; the rest of the island of New Guinea , not part of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea , is sometimes included, so are Palau and the Northern Mariana Islands , which were all part of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region the Philippines.

The eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf ; the region. Free range Free range denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24 hours each day.

On many farms, the outdoors ranging area is fenced, thereby technically making this an enclosure, free range systems offer the opportunity for the extensive locomotion and sunlight, otherwise prevented by indoor housing systems. Free range may apply to meat, eggs or dairy farming; the term is used in two senses that do not overlap completely: as a farmer-centric description of husbandry methods, as a consumer-centric description of them.


There is a diet where the practitioner only eats meat from free-range sources called ethical omnivorism. In ranching, free-range livestock are permitted to roam without being fenced in, as opposed to fenced-in pastures. In many agriculture-based economies, free-range livestock are quite common. If one allows "free range" to include "herding", free range was a typical husbandry method at least until the development of barbed wire and chicken wire. The poor understanding of nutrition and diseases before the twentieth century made it difficult to raise many livestock species without giving them access to a varied diet, the labor of keeping livestock in confinement and carrying all their feed to them was prohibitive except for high-profit animals such as dairy cattle.

In the case of poultry , free range was the dominant system until the discovery of vitamins A and D in the s, which allowed confinement to be practised on a commercial scale. Before that, green feed and sunshine were necessary to provide the necessary vitamin content; some large commercial breeding flocks were reared on pasture into the s. Nutritional science resulted in the increased use of confinement for other livestock species in much the same way. In the United States , USDA free range regulations apply only to poultry and indicate that the animal has been allowed access to the outside; the USDA regulations do not specify the quality or size of the outside range nor the duration of time an animal must have access to the outside.

The term "free range" is used as a marketing term rather than a husbandry term, meaning something on the order of, "low stocking density," "pasture-raised," "grass-fed," "old-fashioned," "humanely raised," etc. There have been proposals to regulate USDA labeling of products as free range within the United States; as of what constitutes raising an animal "free range" is entirely decided by the producer of that product, is inconsistent with consumer ideas of what the term means. In poultry-keeping, "free range" is confused with yarding , which means keeping poultry in fenced yards. Yarding, as well as floorless portable chicken pens may have some of the benefits of free-range livestock but, in reality, the methods have little in common with the free-range method.

A behavioral definition of free range is the most useful: "chickens kept with a fence that restricts their movements little. For example, according to Jull, "The most effective measure of preventing cannibalism seems to be to give the birds good grass range. De-beaking was invented to prevent cannibalism for birds not on free range, the need for de-beaking can be seen as a litmus test for whether the chickens' environment is sufficiently "free-range-like. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service requires that chickens raised for their meat have access to the outside in order to receive the free-range certification.

There is no requirement for access to pasture, there may be access to only dirt or gravel.

Consider Keeping These Friendly Chickens As Pets Or For Eggs

Free-range chicken eggs, have no legal definition in the United States. Free-range egg producers have no common standard on what the term means; the broadness of "free range" in the U. The Pastured Poultry concept is promoted by the American Pastured Poultry Producers' Association, an organization of farmers raising their poultry using Salatin's principles. Traditional American usage equates "free range" with "unfenced," and with the implication that there was no herdsman keeping them together or managing them in any way.

A free-range jurisdiction allowed livestock to run free, the owner was not liable for any damage they caused. In such jurisdictions, people who wished to avoid damage by livestock had to fence them out; the USDA has no specific definition for "free-range" beef and other non-poultry products. All USDA definitions of "free-range" refer to poultry. Many industry claim categories are included in the notice, including breed claims, antibiotic claims, grain fed claims.

In a May Federal Register notice, the agency presented a summary and its responses to comments received in the notice, but only for the category "grass fed" which the agency stated was to be a category separate. Nankeen Nankeen called Nankeen cloth, is a kind of pale yellowish cloth made at Nanjing, China from a yellow variety of cotton, but subsequently manufactured from ordinary cotton, dyed.

the nankin bantam a rare and ancient fowl Manual

In the plural a piece or variety of this cloth; the term blue nankeen describes hand-printed fabric of artistic refinement and primitive simplicity, which originated on the Silk Road over three thousand years ago. After the desired colour is achieved and the fabric has dried, the paste is scraped off, revealing the white patterns on the blue cloth; the fabric is washed and ironed before fabrication.

Nankeen refers to: Trousers made of nankeen. Pale yellow or buff.